An Analytical Study on Color Blindness in Different Parts of the World

An Analytical Study on Color Blindness in Different Parts of the World
Introduction
A person is said to be color blind when his/her eyes do not make all the pigments needed for color vision. It is a genetic condition and commonly occurs in men; one in every 12 men is to some degree affected by this condition (Cummings, 2015). Rarely does it occur in women. If just one pigment is missing, the eye might have trouble seeing certain colors. E. g. the most common form of color blindness is red-green color blindness; where red and green look alike. This is followed by blue-yellow color blindness (Chandakkar, 2012). This paper is a summary of an analysis done on various populations so as to understand the prevalence of color blindness.
Discussion
Unfortunately for some people, their eyes do not possess pigments in their cones. This however varies from one person to another. When no pigments are present in the cones, the eye does not see color at all (Cummings, 2015). This severe form is known as achromatopsia. When someone is color-blind, it is usually because his eyes do not make all the pigments needed for color vision. A survey targeting orthoptics was conducted in different parts of the worlds using a questioner. The data collected was then analyzed to obtain the following data. It is therefore important to know the following terms (Yancy. G& Davidson M, 2014).
Tritanopia is blue-yellow color blindness and is very rare. Orthoptics agree that 0.008% of people are affected by this deficiency. Monochromacy which is complete color blindness is similarly very rare. Dichromats completely lack one type of the retinal cones. The study estimates that numbers vary between 1 in 33’000 to 100’000 (0.001%). Four different deficiencies describe the wording red-green color blindness (Chandakkar, 2012). Trichromats are individuals suffering from color perception in the green-yellow-red portion of the spectrum. Protans show a less sensitivity to red light, while deutans to green light.

From the data obtained, approximately 8% of men and 0.5% of women are affected by color blindness (Cummings, 2015). Deutanomaly is by far the most common color vision deficiency. The other three forms occur at nearly the same ratio. They affect one out of every 100 people. The ratio of a man being affected to a woman is 1:100. The gene linked to red green color blindness is found in the X chromosome. Only one X chromosome is found in males while females possess 2. Therefore, a boy born of a female with the faulty gene has ½ chances of getting the gene. However, a girl born of the same female may not have the condition as she has 2 X Chromosomes except if the father is has the same defective gene. When this occurs in one parent, she maintains a 50% of carrying the defective gene (being a carrier). Therefore, it is principally seen in men as a sex-connected trait. Blue-yellow color blindness remains exceptionally uncommon: different from red green color blindness, the probability of one having this condition is equal in both sexes. The causative gene is found in other chromosomes and not the sex chromosomes (chromosome 7). This gene is shared equally by men and women and blue color blindness comes from a mutation of this gene (Chandakkar, 2012).

Conclusion
In rare cases, problems can arise across the whole color spectrum affecting colors like red, green, orange, brown, purple, pink and grey. Some extreme cases confuse black for dark green or dark blue (Yancy. G& Davidson M, 2014).
The consequences of lack of color vision can be insignificant, moderate or extreme (Cummings, 2015). This study indicates that roughly 40% of color blind schoolchildren presently exiting secondary school is oblivious of their condition despite the fact that over 60% of this number faces many challenges on day-to-day basis.
In future if research is carried out on various areas, many colorblind people are bound to benefit. Research done on creating glasses that can eliminate or reduce (correct) color blindness in their different forms would be very beneficial (Chandakkar, 2012). Foods that can reduce the chances of getting color blindness could also be very helpful. Studies should also be done to ensure that simple ways can be used to detect color blindness at an early stage e.g. in infancy.

References
Cummings ,M. (2015). Human heredity: principles and issues. S.I: Cengage Learning
Chandakkar,P. (2012). Clinically relevant classification and retrieval of diabetic retinopathy images. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis
Yancy, G., & Davidson, M. (2014). Exploring Race in Predominantly White Classrooms Scholars of Color Reflect. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.