The Influence of Parental Practices on Child Promotive and Preventive Food Consumption Behaviors

The Influence of Parental Practices on Child Promotive and Preventive Food Consumption Behaviors
Summary
According to the author a family is an important social unit that influences on a number of things among children, food and eating behaviors alike. Specifically, parents and caregivers play significant roles including influencing the eating habits, food preferences, role models and educators for the children. According to the author, his study was specifically trying to research on the systematic empirical roles and influences of parents on their children food tastes, choices and preferences (Yee, et al, and 2017). According to the author a total of 127, 400 parents were involved in the research. Andrew observes that nearly 89% of the parents interviewed during the carrying out of the study showed that they made choices of the meals and foods that their children consume (Yee, et al, and 2017). The variables in the research included education, availability of food, guidance, rewarding, pressure to eat and modeling.
The results indicated that parental influence, modeling and education on unhealthy food consumption were the main factors for unhealthy living among the children. In addition food accessibility, availability and effective parenting invariably influenced food consumption among the children and young people (Yee, et al, and 2017). According to the author, parental guidance, education and active guidance were the best models in informing healthy food preferences. The author concludes that parental actions and behaviors strongly correlate with children preferences on food and diet (Yee, et al, and 2017). Most importantly, the research identifies three areas that parental influence on food preferences are underestimated and understudied; parental modeling, parental active guidance and influence from the psychosocial moderators.

The Second Articles
Parental Influence on Children’s Eating Habits
Summary
New research indicates that food preferences among the children attributes to 90% of lifetime ailments. Caregivers and parents inform the preference on food for their children, it is critical that parents put considerations of what they feed their children. Scientific research indicates that parents play critical roles on the health of their children. In this study, I shall consider three articles on the parental influence on children’s eating habits. The research was conducted among the US parents and children. The research involved 29,000 people across the US.
Experiences with food among the children begin at an early age. The fetus becomes aware of food flavors from their maternal diet during pregnancy. Additionally, the authors of this article observes that a child gets to be aware of food flavors from breast milk while breastfeeding (Anzman, et al, and 2010). According to the authors of this article, the early experience of the child or children provides a formidable flavor bridge with certain diet of foods. The initial bridge built while the fetus is still in the womb promotes the child’s acceptance of particular foods from the maternal diet (Anzman, et al, and 2010). As the children transit from childhood and modifies their adult diet, the preferences that the children is determined by the availability and accessibility of foods. The author concludes that, parental influence, familiarity and modeling plays significant role on their children choice of food and therefore determining whether they will live a health life or not.
The finding according to this author suggests that a number of parental interventions are due to mitigate the effects of unhealthy dietaries. According to the author if this article, he is of the view that the interventions should be initiated right from the time of pregnancy (Anzman, et al, and 2010). The findings of the research indicates that, if the communities, families and the individuals want their children to have a positive attitudes towards healthy meals or foods such as green vegetables and fruits, then they need an early induction towards those foods and have a repetitive cultures for the health foods (Anzman, et al, and 2010). Further the implication of the research shows that the tendencies of the children to have high appetites for junk foods, sweet and salty foods, rich caloric foods and poor energy foods requires adult intervention to provide healthy and varied meals and diets for the children.
The Anzman also appreciates that the children have the ability to determine and self-regulate the kind of foods that they take; the extent to which they put this abilities in practice is determined by the environment, caregivers and their parents. The author gives examples in which he suggests that, where a child is accessible to unhealthy foods, modeling of excessive intake of food, and restricted eating habits undermines self regulation of foods among the children (Anzman, et al, and 2010). The author offers a solution. He observes that observing the traditional meals as well ways of living is the way to go. The current manifestation of terminal illness such as heart disease, cancer and obesity is as a result of meals and foods that children consume.
The Anzman concludes his article blaming the caregivers, parents, the society and the state in general for the health problems bewildering children in the modern times. He is of the opinion that the choices of food that a mother prefers while still pregnant set a stage for the fetus, children and later the adult life of the child (Anzman, et al, and 2010). Further, he suggests that in most of the communities and families, mothers still have immense influence of the kind of meals and foods that children consume. Additionally, breastfeeding is recommended for the children for the first six months, and later some solid foods after the lapse of the six months. These suggestions and recommendations are based on the medical evidence that breast feeding supports the normal growth of a child (Anzman, et al, and 2010). Lastly, the author observes that mothers and care givers and even the society have immense role in influencing the kind of food preferences that children make.

The Third Article
How Peer and Parental Influences Affect Meal Choices
Summary
This article conducts a research on the role the parents and peers have on the food preferences in children. The author observes that parents have an immense influence of the child’s early eating habits. This is basically through the provision and accessibility of food as well as the environment. The research involved 78,000 parents and children across the US. According to the author, the early eating habits among the children develop in the initial stages through the social interactions on feeding and eating (Ludvigsen, Anna and Scott, 2009). As a young person, a child tries to learn the eating habits and cultures of their parents or adults. According to the author, the learning ability for the children at this early age is remarkable.
Additionally, children learn about food experiences, choice of food and the eating habits by observing from parents, and caregivers. Ludvigsen, the author of this article found out that the consumption and selection of meals and foods among the pre-school children were informed by their peers (Ludvigsen, Anna and Scott, 2009). In his research, he found out that where some children prefer vegetables, fruits and healthy foods, they are likely to influence other to start liking such foods. According to Leann, children learn a lot from the adults around their vicinity, and where the adults live a healthy life, the children will tend to ape the lives of the adults. In addition, the author observes that parenting by definition involves taking care of the young people and feeding them (Ludvigsen, Anna and Scott, 2009). His study that was published in the Child Development indicated that peer influence on the foods and eating habits was immense among pre-school children.
In conclusion, the author observes that where a pre-school child is seated next to a colleague that dislikes greens, the one with a disliking attitude towards vegetable is likely to alter preference of the other with liking attitude towards vegetables. He further observes that the same is true with adolescents. Leann further suggests that during adolescent period, the young adolescents have immense influence on others on the kind of meals and foods they consume. Additionally, according to the author, just like peer influence, parental and family influences may alter young people’s preferences towards foods and certain meals. Accordingly, the environment that a child grows in also has a critical role in informing the preference of meals that a child consumes.
Conclusion
Food consumption among the children is influenced at an early stage in life. Understanding the child behavioral changes and preferences towards meals and food is significant in making sure that children live a healthy life. specifically, promoting and increasing consumption of healthy meals and foods among the children and at the same time restricting consumption of unhealthy meals such as sugary and junk foods can help protect and promote healthy living among children and the community at large. In spite of this call, children across the world are consuming unhealthy foods at an alarming rate. Accordingly, to compound the problem of unhealthy consumption of unhealthy meals and foods, children dislike vegetables and fruits.
According to research conducted by the Child Development, 87% of the children in the US do not consume fruits and vegetable to the recommended standards. Mirroring the behavior of children in the US, children in the UK are consuming vegetables and fruits are a very low quantities. Parents play an important role and are agents of social change to their children especially in the early age. Parents and caregivers are model models, educators and health promoters and therefore, they should undertake these tasks and ensure that their children are healthy. Other variables include peers, availability of foods, accessibility of foods and cultural practices.

Work Cited
Anzman, Stephanie L., Brandi Y. Rollins, and Leann L. Birch. “Parental influence on children’s early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention.” International journal of obesity 34.7 (2010): 1116-1124.
Ludvigsen, Anna, and Sara Scott. “Real kids don’t eat quiche: what food means to children.” Food, Culture & Society 12.4 (2009): 417-436.
Yee, Andrew ZH, May O. Lwin, and Shirley S. Ho. “The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 14.1 (2017): 47.